From meenawiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Meenas celebrate Meenesh Jayanti on 3 Tithi of Chaitra Shukal paksha according to the vedic calendar. The main reference of this belief is based on the scripture of the Matsya Purana[1] and Matsya Purana is the oldest of all the Indian Puranas.[2][3][4][5]

Originally Meenas were a ruling tribe, and were ruler of Matsya,i.e., Rajasthan or Matsya Union[6] but their slow downfall began with the assimilation with Scythian and was completed when the British government declared them a "Criminal Tribe". This very action was taken to support their alliance with Rajput kingdom then in Rajasthan, and Meenas were still in war with Rajputs, carrying out guerrilla attacks to retain their lost kingdoms.

According to evidences and scholars, Meena tribe is one of the oldest tribal community of India,residing since 50,000 years. Around 7000 BCE, the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh.These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[25] the first urban culture in South Asia; it flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in western India.[27] Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production.

During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. In the Vedic period, around the 5th century BCE, the chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas, in which Matsya janpad of Meena tribe established their kingdom in Rajasthan.


Members of the Meena community are mainly found in Rajasthan(Matsya Pradesh) State of India. According to evidences and scholars, Meena caste is one of the oldest tribal community of India. Meenas share the Brij and Matsya Area of Rajasthan i.e. Sawai Madhopur, Dausa, Jaipur, Dholpur and Karauli districts in Jaipur and Bharatpur region (also the Bharatpur and Bayana districts) with other communities. They inhabit the area from JaipurSikar in Shekhawati region and Alwar in the northeast region of the state. They are also widely spread in Kota, Jhalawar and Bundi. Meenas are also found in north-western Madhya Pradesh i.e. Sheopur, Morena, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, Sajapur, Bhopal etc. The Meenas community of Rajasthan, are an agricultural people. The problem of famine and drought is deeply related with the economy of Rajasthan. In spite of long period of economic development a durable water policy was not formulated in the state. A very high dependency upon agriculture,which is mostly rainfed,is the cause of low incomes.

The Meena kings were the early rulers of Rajasthan including Amber (early capital of Jaipur). The book "Culture and Integration of India Tribes" by R.S.Mann mentions that Meenas are considered as a Kshatriya caste equally as Vedic Kshatriyas, and having higher social status in the society. They are well integrated with other higher castes like Brahmins, Gurjaras, Yadavs, Jaat, Marathas, Mev etc. Brahmins perform all rituals from birth, marriage and death for Meenas like for any other higher caste.


Vedic Period

Meenas, Scythians and pure Bharmans

Matsya Avatar (Meena Avatar).

In the ancient times Rajasthan was ruled by a dynasty of Meenas which had the emblem of Fish like the Pandyan kingdom (Paravar, Karava, Karaiyar) of the south India.[7][8] The name Mina is derived from Meen[7][9][10] and the Minas claim descent from the Matsya Avatar(Meena Avatar[11])of God.[12][13][14][15][1] Matsya Avatar(Mina/Meen Avatar) takes place to save the pious and the first man, Manu.[16][17][18] Possibly, the first Matsya king in central India was Meen (Meenesh) who established tribal power in Rajasthan and gradually extended supremacy over north-western India. The capital of Matsyas in Rajasthan was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata Meena. Manu married Shraddha and had ten children including Ila and Ikshvaku, the progenitors of the Lunar Dynasty and Solar Dynasty respectively.[19][20]

Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). Realms or tribes are labelled black, Foreign tribes mentioned in early Vedic texts purple, Vedic shakhas in green. Rivers are labelled blue. Position of Matsya Kingdom

The Meena kingdom[21] ruled the west of the river Jamuna roughly corresponding to the modern Jaipur and Alwar (ruler) areas. The Meena kingdom (Fish kingdom) was called Matsya Kingdom in Sanskrit was mentioned in the Rig Veda.[12][22][23][24] Rigveda is the oldest of all the Vedas and was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent,roughly between 1700–1100 BC.[25][26][27][28][29]

Matsya or Meena (Sanskrit for fish) was the name of a Kshatriya tribe and the state of the Vedic civilization of India.[30][8][23][24] It lay to south of the kingdom of Kurus and west of the Yamuna which separated it from the kingdom of Panchalas. It roughly corresponded to former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan, and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur.[31] The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata.[21] Meenas are brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area(near to Virat Nagar) till 11th century.[12][32] A branch of Matsya is also found in later days in Visakhapatnam region.Further, Mahabharata describes Abhira(Yadav) as forming one of the republics, Samsaptak Gunas, and as a friend of Matsyas(Meenas),[30] the ancient Indian Rulers.[33]

The most famous Matsya kingdom was the one under the rule of king Virata, the ally of the Pandavas.[34] Pandavas, while staying in the palace of Virata, witnessed a festival named after lord Brahma. Shiva considered to be the central deity in the Matsya Purana, Shiva Purana, Linga Purana, Kurma purana, Skanda Purana, and Agni Purana. While the Shiva Purana is strongly sectarian in its focus on Shiva, others are not so clearly sectarian and include material about other deities as well, particularly Vishnu.[35] Matsya Kingdom was within the reach of Vedic religion. The Kauravas with the Panchalas, the Salwas, the Matsyas(Meenas), the Naimishas, the Koshalas, the Kasapaundras, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, and the Chedis who are all highly blessed, know what the eternal religion is.(8,45)[36] The Rig Veda mentions Pure Kshatriya tribes of ancient India which includes Bhāratas, Meenas, Puru, Anu, Kuru, Yadu, Ayu, Chedi, Mahīna, Śiva, Uśīnara, Druhyus, Gandhara, Ikshvaku, etc.[37][38] The Vedas do not mention Kshatriyas of either Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi, Nagavanshi, Agnivanshi or such Vanshas or lineages. The Puranas, of debatable dating, constructed such genealogies. According to Shrimad Bhagvad,in olden times,Meenas were the rulers of entire Bhārata.[39] Since ancient times,Meena Kshatriyas were the Protectors of Kshatriya values and Sanatana Dharma.[40]

Meena king Virata was the principal ally of the Pandavas. The Pandavas camped at Upaplavya a Meena city north to the capital Virata-puri. All the allies of Pandavas brought their armies to this city, before the Kurukshetra War. Meena army became ready to fight under the Matsya heroes viz king Virata, his brothers Satanika, Madirakhsya and Visalaksha all of them kings ruling other Matsya domanins, the military-general Suryadatta, Virata's eldest son Sakha Meena and Sweta, his another son. The Pandavas except Arjuna also was in the army of Virata. These heroes opposed the Trigarta army. (4-31,32,33). Virata's youngest son Uttara and Arjuna defended the Kaurava army (4-54 to 65). Both the Trigarta army and the Kaurava army were defeated and they fled to their respective kingdoms.[41] Virata, with his brothers like Satanika and sons like Sankha, Sweta, Uttara and Vabhru (5,57) battled in the Kurukshetra War on the side of the Pandavas. Virata was slain by Drona (7,184). Satyadhriti of the Matsyas, Madiraswa and Suryadatta have all been slain by Drona (8,6) Upaplavya was a city in the Meena Kingdom ruled by king Virata. It was the city where the Pandavas camped and planned their strategy for the Kurukshetra War.[42] Kichaka Kingdom was a part of the Matsya kingdom ruled by the Meenas rulers. Kichaka Kingdom was allied to King Virata. The Kichaka king, known by the name Kichaka was the commander-in-chief of the Meena-army under king Virata.[43] He was a Suta(Matsya Kshatriya and Brahmin alliance) (4,15). A hundred kings of the Meena race were mentioned at (2,8)[44]

Meengarh(Meena kingdom) was situated somewhere on the bank of river Indus. Here, there were some 152 states of Meenas. This is contemporary to the period of Indus Valley Civilization (2600 to 1800 bc). The Jaga-ke-pothi mentions that from these 152 states, originated 152 original gotras of Meenas.Matsya Kingdom(proper) & Kalibangan in Rajasthan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.[45] In 500 BC, Silver punch-marked coins [46] were minted as currency belonging to a period of intensive trade activity and urban development by the Mahajanapadas.[47][48] Matsya Kshatriyas performed great sacrifices at which many gifts were given to Brahmins, and Brahmins studied the Vedas with their branches.[49] The Meena Kingdom was known as “Matsya” as each of these Janapadas was named after the Kshatriya tribe (or the Kshatriya Jana) who had settled therein.[50] Merchant community flourished during Mahajanpadas. After the end of the Vedic period, the Mahajanapadas period in turn gave way to the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BC), the golden age of classical Sanskrit literature. Around 300 BC, the Meena Kingdom comes under Mauryan empire. The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC.[51][52]

At the time of Ashoka, Meena people seen an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of knowledge. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara (royal prince), who governed the provinces as king's representative. The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his Mantriparishad (Council of Ministers). Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the Arthashastra. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Some of the most famous edicts of Asoka have been found at Bairat ( Rajasthan ). The Ashoka Lion capital or the Sarnath lion capital is known as the national symbol of India.

The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent including the Meena Kingdom was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. 320–550 CE).[53][54] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[55] and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technology, Indian inventions and engineering, art, dialectic, Indian literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Culture of India.[56] The decimal system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India during this period.[57] The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy.

In the later days the Bhils and Meenas mixed with the Pardeshis (foreign people) who were Scythian, Hepthalite or other Central Asian clans. The Scythian mixed Meenas and Bhils remain as Rajput subclans, while the Meenas and Bhils who were displaced by the Scythian invaders and Muslims have mixed with the tribal Bhils and form the Bhil (tribal) Meenas.

Meenas of Rajasthan till date strongly follows Vedic culture. Meenas mainly worship Mahesh, Bhainroon (Shiva), Krishna as well as the Devies.[58] Meenas have better rights for women in many respects compared to many other Hindu casts.[58] Like remarriage of a widows and divorcees is a common practice and well accepted in their society. Such practice are part of Vedic civilization.

From Vedic period to the present, Meenas (Meenavar) have seen many ups and downs. In ancient period they were a ruling tribe of Rajasthan. Coming to medieval period they were cut off from their own land, to the interiors of mountain and forests. The oral history preserved in the traditional folktales and folklores of this tribe affirm the kingdom of Meena (Meendesha) with its capital at Amber. Col. James Tod has written that, Meena was a great community which ruled over large part of Rajasthan. During the 10th century AD, Meenas were totally routed out from Amber and Jaipur and thus deprived of their privileges.[59][60]

According to the book, "History of India" (by Prof. Mukherjee, M.A.) It was a transition period marked by a new grouping of states due to Hun invasions. The series of invasions by the Huns and other associated foreign tribes in the fifth and sixth centuries shook the fabric of the society and brought a rearrangement of the caste system and of the ruling dynasties. The Scythians and other northwestern invaders in Indian literature were described as barbarians,slaves.[61] Brihat-Katha-Manjari of Kshmendra informs us that king Vikramaditya had unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas etc. by annihilating these sinners.[62]Patanjali in his Mahabhasya regards the Sakas and Yavanas as pure Shudras.[63][64] Sakas (or Scythians), migrated into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 6th century AD. The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion. The Valmiki Ramayana also attests that the Sakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Yavanas fought together against the Vedic Hindu king Vishwamitra of Kanauj.[65] Some Asian Saka include bala etc.[66][67] The destructive effects of the Hun inroads were, to a certain extent, arrested by Harsha (Harshwardhan) but as soon as his strong hand was removed, they manifested themselves in a regrouping of states. Hence the latter half of seventh century, during which this new grouping of states took place, is regarded as a period of transition from early to medieval India. The most prominent feature of this transitional period is the rise of the Rajput Clans. The Thakurs were of Scythian origin and historians derive their name from Tukharian.The Scythian or Saka tribes were the last pre-Islamic migrants into India.[68] Many scythians were absorbed into the Rajput stock,and that the Rajputs of today possess a considerable Greek ancestry.[69] The 'Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race' proves that all the modern-day Rajputs, Thakurs, Gujjars are not Vedic Aryans but instead the descendants of Scythic immigrants.[69] Thus all `Hindus' are not Vedic Aryans. Phylogenetic evidence clearly indicates that the Rajput races are of Indo-Scythic descent. Main Descendants of the Scythians in India are Getae,Gurjars,[70] Thakur(Tokharian) and Rajputs.[69][71][72][73][74][75] The term 'Rajput' does not occur in early Sanskrit literature nor do we hear of Rajput clans before the tenth century A.D. This proves that they were a later addition to the population of India. According to Prof. Naidu, Rajput is a contemptuous term applied by the Aryans to the Rajput invaders. Over several centuries, the Rajputs exterminated the native populations of Bhils and Meenas, till they confined to the mountainous regions of Rajasthan. During the troubled times that followed the breakup of the Gupta Empire, many foreign races such as the Huns, the Gurjaras[76] etc. settled in the Punjab and Rajputana and became Hinduised in course of time. The Pratihara clan was descended from the Gurjars, and this raises a strong presumption that the other Rajput clans also are the descendants from the Gurjaras or the allied foreign immigrants.[77] The upper ranks of these foreigners, whose main occupation was war, came to be known as Gurjaras, while the humbler folks ranked low in social status and developed into inferior castes such as Ahir. Brahmins were clever enough to see that number of princes should be within limits. Brahmins knew that if these people did not fight among themselves, they would be burden to Brahmins and a danger to their position in times to come.

The people were kept in ignorances, fed with unwholesome superstition and beguiled with gorgeous and never ending festivals." The Hindus[78] were losing their old assimilative power. They were losing their old vitality. The rigid caste system was making them unprogressive. The dominance of the Brahmanas, both in spiritual and secular matters was doing havoc." (Mahajan: 1972: 557). Therefore, the division of the same class of people into different social grades was based not on birth but on occupation. Of the Hinduised descendants of the original invaders, those who belonged to ruling classes, with war and government as their chief business, came to be treated as Kshatriyas. The common people, on the other hand, given the rank of lower castes. Thus many of the most distinguished Gurjaras[79] clans such as the Chauhans, the Pariharas, the Pawars (Paramaras), the Solankis (Chalukyas) are descended mainly from foreigners, called Scythians by Tod. While others are descended from indigenous tribes elevated to the rank of Kshatriyas.[80]

The nations around Meena kingdom in 810 AD were the Bhoja (Gurjaras), Kuru, Avanti and the Kingdom of Pala king Dharamapala of Bengal.[81] The imperial Gujjars established their rule over North India with their capital at Bhinmal. The Meena rulers of Dhundhar entered into matrimonial alliances, and ultimately established friendly relations with the Imperial Gurjars. The son of the king Prathviraja of Delhi was married to the daughter of the king Alan Singh Chanda [5]. This also reveals the link between Chandas and Chauhan Gurjaras. Other interesting fact, Chauhan claim to be descended from Dhundhar[82] and historically before Kachwahas it was ruled by dynasty of Chanda Meenas (approximately till 10th c.).

Most of the major Rajput kingdoms were founded on the ‘blood of Bhils, Native Rulers, Meenas etc. During the exterminations that lasted for several centuries, the Native bhils, minas etc. were massacred and their towns destroyed, till they eventually only survived in the extreme hills of Rajasthan.Though the word "Rajput" is supposed to be a corrupted form of the Sanskrit word 'Raajaputra' which means a "scion of the royal blood" and that the word occurs in the Harshcharita of Bana, Mahajan is honest enough to accept that the word, in earlier times and in some areas even now, had an disrespectful meaning. [Mahajan: 1972: 550 ff.] The conclusion is obvious that they were not considered by the original residents or original kshatriyas(Gurjar, Meenas, Vedic kshatriya,Yadavas)[78] to be respectable, to start with. This is because "Raaja" means royal but "Raj" means semen. The progeny of mixed marriages is even now called by that name in some parts. The condition of woman was deteriorating. The question of women education was unthinkable. Obscene Art flourished during Rajput age. The originality of the ancient times was lost and the ancient culture degenerated. The country fell into the hands of Rajput barons, soon to be followed by the Mohammedan invaders who completed the work of annihilation. The combined army of Kachwaha Rajputs and Mughals defeated the powerful Meena Kings of Rajasthan by annihilating them.[83] Rajput age was a Dark Age for masses of India.[78] The Rajputs were created by priestly class to suppress the religion of Buddha is well known. But the permanent solution could have only come through a class who will not only be subservient to them, but also would be careless about the welfare of masses and join hands with them in exploiting them. The Muslim Rule was also a Brahmanic rule as far as the masses were concerned. According to the scholar John Keay, not until the Mughal period, which began in 1526 AD, did the word "Rajput" come to be used of a particular class or tribe.[84]

Hindu law as codified through acts passed between 1955 and 1956 were based on inegalitarian Victorian English patters of marriage and inheritance and on the customary practices of some the dominant communities in North-West India, among whom women's right have been seriously coded. The practices of the Nairs in Kerala, Meitei in Mainipur, Meenas in Rajasthan and Jains, which provide better rights to women in many respects, were presumed to be non-existent or non-Indian. Thus the Hindu codified law is in many ways a step backward for some communities.[58][85]

The book by Alfred Comyn Lyall[86] covers the early formations of Meena cast, their adventures, outlaws, outcast, and refugees generally. The book highlights on the fact of Meenas groups having Bharman and Scythian ancestors. Where most of the Meenas preserve the name of the higher clan or Cast from which founder emigrated and joined Meenas. Some names denote only the founder's original habitation, while other circle bears the names of notorious ancestors.

The semantic change from a tribal state into the Hindu state of jati-varna matrix saw the conversion and absorption of tribals into the Brahmin class, through adoption of the priestly occupation later.[87][88] However, the Bharmans who joined Meenas are the one who have from time to time been persuaded or forced by some wild chief or captain of the pure clans to officiated in a human sacrifice; and that, having thereby quite forfeited their pure cast, they become degraded, and were driven forth to minister into the tribes beyond the pale. This story must not hastily be set aside as improbable, for the tradition of human sacrifice was common then. Further to this, Alfred Comyn Lyall added,

"These Meena Levites appears to be collection of all kinds of waifs and cutting from upper religious caste, they may possible rise in respectability as their clients get on in the world; and one might almost hazard the speculation, though it will be received with horror in certain quarters, that they are something like a Brahmanic tribe in faint embryo"

During the years of invasion, several fresh groups of Meenas have been formed, under the stress of the frightful famine which desolated Rajputana in 1868. During the last millennium, food insecurity were rampant in mina dominated areas of Rajputana. As a consequence starving families were compelled to abandon scruples of caste and honesty, to steal cattle and to eat them. The earlier contributions of warriors and protectors of the state, jats, Bhils,and Meenas were neglected and lost in history.[89]

Ancient history

Map of the Matsya janapada.

At the time of great Epic Mahabharat was written there was a Janpad known as "Matsya Janpad". The city of this Janpad was "Virat Nagar", now known as "Bairath" and renamed as Virata Nagar again. The Pandavas got shelter there for one year. In the epic Mahabharata, Uttarm, the prince of Meena Kingdom and the son of King Virata, at whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. He was the brother of Uttarā, who married Arjuna's son.[90] There are still places known as "Pandupol" near Virat Nagar. Abhimanyu the son of Arjun and great warrior married to daughter of King of Virat Nagar the princess was named Uttarā. After Abhimanyu died in battle of Kurukshetra, and all Pandav sons were killed by Ashwathama they were left without progeny. Uttarā was pregnant then. After Pandavas went to Himalaya, the son delivered by Uttarā was "Parikhishit" who inherited Pandavas and ruled India.[90] He was killed by "Takshak" a Naga or Nagvanshi Khastriya. His son Janmejay did a Yagya to finish all Nagas at "Nagdah" known as "Nagada" now in MP. King Virat and all his sons and brothers were killed at Kurukshetra in Mahabharat. Some of clan brothers ruled this area after him. Many historical evidence is recovered from this area all belonging to time of Lord Buddha. Meenas are the brothers and kinsmen of Virata, the ruler of Virat Nagar. They ruled this area (near to Virat Nagar) till 11 th century. Among their last Kingdoms Dhundhar was the biggest and later on the region was governed by the Kachwaha dynasty from the 11th century until after India's independence in 1947.

Rao Hammir the great king of Ranthambhor was from Meenas. Rao Hammir was grandson of great king Prithviraj Chauhan. As found in history, the later ruler (Kachwaha Rajputs and Mughals) destroyed the glorious past of Meenas.

Main Kingdoms of Meenas (in the Rajasthan)
S.No Name of the Kingdom Clan and name of the Meena Rulers
1. Khoh-Gong Chanda Agnivanshi (a branch of Chauhan) see Dhundhar,[40][91] Rāja Alansingh Meena
2. Maach Sira, Rājah RaoNattō Singh Meena
3. Gatoor & Jhotwada Nandla (also called Bad-Goti)
4. Amer (old city of Jaipur State) Soosawut/Susawat, Rājah Bhanu Singh Meena
5. Nayala jhirwal
6. Naen\Nahn Gomladu, Raja Bada Singh Meena or Prince Bada of Nahn
7. Ranthambore Taatu(a branch of Chauhan), Rāja Jauharsingh Meena
8. Bundi Ushara (Parihar Meenas or Pratihar), Rāja Jaita Singh Meena
9. Mawar Meena
10. ---- Nandla / Badgoti
11 Devbandah Dagal, Rājah Katarao Meena
12 Tehla (near Sariska Tiger Reserve) Bheemroth
13 Siroh Jakhiwal
14 Manota Devadwal / Davidwal
15 Boojh Saugun / Saugan
16 Thanagazi (Alwar District) Mewaal, Rao Shivasingh Meena
17 Sarjoli Mandor
18 Godwad ( Sirohi State) Godmina
19 Nareth Byadwal Meenas Dynasty

Main Forts build by Meena Kings

  1. Fort of Amaghar
  2. Fort of Hatrohi
  3. Fort of Khog
  4. Fort of Jamvaramghar
  5. Fort of Jalore
  6. Fort of Bhanwargarh(Baran)
  7. Fort of Ranthambore

Main Lakes and bawaries (to hold water from Rain) build by Meena Kings

  1. Jait Sagar, Rajasthan[92]
  2. Panna mina ki bawarie, Amer
  3. Meen Bhagwan bawarie,near Sariska,Alwar
  4. Bhuli bawarie,village Sarjoli
  5. Khogong bawarie, Jaipur

Main temples build by Meena Kings

  1. Dant Mata Temple (Sehra Meena's dynasty Goddess)
  2. Shiva Temple at Nayi ka Nath (Banskho), Jaipur
  3. Banki Mata Temple at Raysar, Jaipur (Byadwal Meena's Dynasty Goddess)
  4. Meen Bhagwan Mandir,Bassi,Jaipur
  5. Shiva Temple, Khogonw
  6. Bai Temple at Badi Chopad Jaipur

'NOTE: Important Book for the reference on above information is "Meena Cast and History of Freedom" by Shri. Lakshmi Nayaran Jharwal'

Medieval history and Conflict with the Mughals

The Meena King[93][94][95] Raja Ralun Singh also known as Alan Singh Chanda of Khogong[59][96] kind-heartedly adopted a stranded Rajput mother and her child who sought refuge in his realm. Later, the Meena king sent the child, Dhola Rae, to Delhi to represent the Meena kingdom. The Rajput, in gratitude for these favours, returned with Rajput conspirers and massacred the weaponless Meenas on Diwali while performing rituals i.e. Pitra Trapan, it is customary in the Meenas to be weaponless at the time of PitraTrapan, "filling the reservoirs in which the Meenas bathed with their dead bodies" [Tod.II.281] and thus conquered Khogong. This act of Kachwaha Rajputs was termed as most coward and shameful in history of Rajasthan.

Amber, India Fort view from Jaigarh

Though historian[97][98] Tod was fond of Rajputs and their history,[99] but this betrayal of Kachwaha Rajputs was termed as one of the most shameful and coward act in history of India by him. T.H. Henley,states in his Rulers of India and the Chiefs of Rajputana (1897) that the Kachwaha clan is believed to have settled in an early era at Rohtas in present-day Bihar, later the clan migrated to Rajasthan. Dhola Rae then subjugated the Sihra Gotra of Meenas at much later on known as Jamwa Ramgarh near Jaipur, and transferred his capital thence. Becoming the son-in-law of the prince of Ajmer, he died when battling 11,000 Meenas,most of whom he slew [Tod.II.282]. His son Maidul Rae "made a conquest of Amber from the Soosawut Meenas" by conspiracy whose King Raja Bhanu Singh Meena, was the head of the Meena confederation. He subdued the Nandla Meenas, annexing the Gatoor-Gatti district [Tod.II.282]. Hoondeo succeeded to the throne and "continued the warfare against the Meenas" [Tod.II.282]. Koontal, his successor, fought the Meenas "in which the Meenas were defeated with great slaughter, which secured his rule throughout Dhundhar" [Tod.II.282]. The Meenas were the original builders of Amber, which town they consecrated to Amba, the Mother Goddess, whom they knew as "Gatta Rani" or "Queen of the Pass" [Tod.II.282]. Amer was known in the medieval period as Dhundar (meaning attributed to a sacrificial mount in the western frontiers).

Describing the destruction of the Meena town of Naed, Tod wrote: "When this latter prince (Baharmull Kachwaha, a contemporary of Babur and Humayun) destroyed the Meena sovereignty of Naend, he levelled its half hundred gates, and erected the town of Lohan (now the residence of a Rajawat chief) on its ruins" [Tod.II.283]. The name of Meena ruler of Naen\Nahn was Raja Bada Meena, he was so rich that his wealth was compared to Akbar's empire in a local saying as "Rajah Bada ko Bijano, Akabar Ko Gharbaar" that mean Rajah Bada's manual fan was so precious that it was compared with Akbar's palace. An old historical[100] proverb records the power of Meena King and Rulers of Nahn, “There were fifty two strongholds, and fifty six gates belonging to the manly Meena, the Raja of Nahn.”

The Kachwaha Rajput ruler Bharmal of Amber always eyed on Nahn and attacked on it several times but could not succeeded against mighty and brave[59][101] Bada Meena. Akbar had asked Rao Bada to marry his daughter Shashivadini to Akbar, but being a true Meena Kshatriya royal blood, Shashivadini Meena refused the proposal. Later on Bharmal married his daughter Jodhabai to Akbar(Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar). Bharmal was made a noble of high rank in the imperial court, and subsequently his son Bhagwant Das and grandson Man Singh also rose to high ranks in the nobility.[102]

Meenas under Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar (Mughals).

Then the combined army of Akbar and Bharmal attacked Bada Meena and killed him damaging 52 kots and 56 gates. Bada's treasure was shared between Akbar and Bharmal. Bharmal kept his treasure in Jaigarh fort near Amber. With the aid of Kachwaha Rajputs, Mughals defeated the powerful Meena Kings of Rajasthan by annihilating them.[103] In the city of Lohan, thousands of elite Meena warriors were massacred by the combined armies of Mughals and Kachwaha Rajputs. Though numerous battles were fought earlier between the Meenas and the Kachwahas, it was the siege of Nahn that was the final, decisive battle that led to the complete downfall of the Meena civilisation and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in Rajasthan. According to Jagas, almost all of the natives were killed or wounded. Thus, the Meena dynasty came to end when thousands of warriors and civilians were killed in when a Imperial force led by the Mughals and Kachwahas defeated the Bada’s army. Akbar distributed the total loot that fell into the hands of his forces throughout the Mughal Empire.[104] Bharmal was first among the Rajputs to marry his daughter with a Mughal. Jodhabai was also the sister of Bhagwandas and the aunt of Man Singh I of Amber, who later became one the nine jewels (Navaratnas) in the court of Akbar.[105] Kyaranagar in Thanaghazi was another important city of Meenas, whose Ruler was Rao Mokalsingh Meena at the time of Akbar’s reign. The armies of Mughals and Kachwaha Rajputs plundered Kyaranagar and in its place founded Mohamadabad.[106] Being true patriot of country Meenas choose to die rather than to give up to mughal invaders. The Kachwaha Rajputs provided the Mughals some of their most distinguished generals. Bhagawant Das was a general of Mughal emperor Akbar, who awarded him a mansab (rank) of 5000 in 1585.[107] and conferred him the title of Amir-ul-Umra.[108] The Kachwaha Rajputs became the strongest allies of the Mughals, and the Rajput soldiers and generals fought for the Mughal army under Akbar, leading it in several campaigns including the conquest of Gujarat in 1572 [109] Raja Bhagwant Das (1575–1589) brought with him the secret of artillery production from Lahore (where he and his son Man Singh remained for many years as governor) to Amber in 1584, soon cannons began to be made at the foundry in Jaigarh Fort (including the world's largest cannon on wheels, the Jaivana[110]), much to the infuriation of the Mughals who kept the secret to themselves ever since they used it in the epic battles, against the Lodhis and the Rajputs. In 1589, Bhagwant Das was succeeded by Raja Man Singh I (1589–1614) (Akbar's Commander-in-Chief), who did much to further the establishment of Mughal rule over present Afghanistan, Kabul,and Rajputana in the west to Orissa and Cooch Behar in the east. From Kashmir in the north to southernmost parts of the Deccan, and also served them in other capacities, notably as governor of Kabul and Bengal. Man Singh’s monumental fortress in Kabul, was used as headquarters by subsequent Mughal governors. As governor of Bengal, Raja Man Singh made Rohtas, his ancestral domain in Bihar, his headquarters;[111] he rebuilt the fort and also built a new palace there. Jai Singh I (1622–1667), commonly known by the title 'Mirza Raja' conferred to him by (his cousin) Shah Jehan, was one of the most prominent Mughal generals during the reigns of Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. An accomplished statesman, scholar and diplomat and a premier noble of the empire, he forced Shivaji to sign Treaty of Purandar (1665). As an emperor, Akbar solidified his rule by pursuing diplomacy with the powerful Rajput caste, and by marrying Rajput princesses.[112][113] The Meenas were treated by the Mughal invaders with the most merciless cruelty. Mewar Sisodia ruler Mahrana Pratap renounced all matrimonial alliances with Rajput rulers who had married into the Mughal dynasty, refusing such alliances even with the princes of Marwar and Amer until they agreed to sever ties with the Mughals.[114]

In the early medieval era, Rajasthan was ruled by a dynasty of Meenas which had the emblem of Eagle. Jaigarh Fort situated on the hill premonitory called the Cheel ka Teela (Hill of Eagles) of the Aravalli hill ranges when it was ruled by Meenas, it overlooks the Amber Fort and the Moata Lake, near Amber in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.[115][116] The old and original fort of Amer dating from earlier Rajas or the Meena reign is what is known in the present day as Jaigarh fort, which is actually the main defensive structure, rather than the palace itself, although the two structures are interconnected by series of encompassing fortification. The hill that Jaigarh was built was called Chil Tila, when it was ruled by Meenas. Many of the ancient structures of the medieval period of the Meena Maharajas have been either destroyed or replaced. However, the Amer Fort and the palace complex within it are well preserved by the later rulers. In the ancient map of Nahari ka Naka (Jaipur), the inscriptions mentions that the white rocks at this region shows the traditions of the Meenas, in which the tigers came here to pay respect to the Meenas.[117] Later on the state is said to have been founded about eleventh century or 1097 by Dūlaha Rāya, who hailed from Gwalior; he and his Kachwaha kinsmen are said to have absorbed or driven out the local Meenas and Badgujar Rajput chiefs. In which the Meenas were to become a key ally of the Kachwahas.

According to the records of Jagas, in Bundi some eleven thousand Meenas were killed by foul play to acquire the throne of Bundi by the Rajputs. In Similar[118] manner some thirty-two sovereign states of Meenas were destroyed one by one by the Kachwaha Rajputs and others to subjugate them. There used to be lots of Meena People, but most of them were killed.[note 1] Losing their power, Meenas resolved to guerilla attacks to take revenge from the Rajputs. Then to settle peace with the Meenas, the Rajput rulers called for a common joint meeting in Ajmer. In the meeting it was mutually decided that Meenas will hold treasury of the state while their ruler will be amongst the Rajputs. With the advent of the Kachwaha Rajputs[40] and Mughals[119] into their territory, the Meenas were gradually sidelined and pushed deep into the forests. As a result, historical literature has completely bypassed the Meenas.

Meenas under British rule

A Meena of Jajurh

During British rule in India, they were placed under Criminal Tribes Act 1871, hence stigmatised for a long time,[120][121] after independence however they were denotified in 1952. Mark Brown (Social Legal Studies 2004; 13; 191)[122] has well elaborated the impact and issues of Meenas community during the British rule, and change in their status from Higher Social Cast to Criminal Tribe. He also mentioned the division in the Meenas as zamindar Mina and chaukidar Meenas. In his case study he answered why and how Meenas have been put under Criminal Tribal category, even being very different from the other tribal people then. How British manage to control Meenas which were growing threat for British rule in Northern India. In Woolbert's (1898) account of the raising of the Meena Battalion at Deoli the difficulties and achievements of this process were described. Woolbert describes the Minas’ history thus:

“The Meenas are an Athletic and Brave Race, tall, handsome, and pleasing to address, obedient to their leaders and sensible in kindness, but at the same time Blood-thirsty and Revengeful..”

The Kachwaha Rajputs were the first in Rajasthan to sign a treaty of ‘offensive and defensive Alliance’ with the British East India Company. During the Revolt of 1857(Indian Rebellion of 1857) when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Kachwaha Rajputs opted to preserve their treaty,and thus sent troops to subdue the uprisings in the area. British fleeing from the Menace of the Mutineers and Minas were sheltered in Nahargarh Fort(Jaipur State). Most of the Rajput princes remained loyal to Britain in the Revolt of 1857,including Jaipur and Bundi States. The Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British, accepting British sovereignty in return for local autonomy and protection from the Marathas. In mid 18th century, when 4,000 Maratha soldiers came on an informal visit to Jaipur, all the gates of the city were closed, and the Rajput army attacked the Marathas and killed them. Following the Mughal tradition and more importantly due to its strategic location Ajmer became a province of British India, while the autonomous Rajput states, the Muslim state (Tonk), and the Jat states (Bharatpur and Dholpur) were organised into the Rajputana Agency. In 1817-18, the British Government concluded treaties of alliance with almost all the states of Rajputana. British under Brevert-Major Robert William with the Kachwaha field forces fought against Minas in 1824, in the Meena hills of Rajasthan, in which the Minas were defeated.[123] Lothoo Jat (1804–1855), Karna Meena and Sanwanta Meena were the famous revolutionary freedom fighters of Rajasthan, of that era. They struggled all their life with the objective to oust British rule from India and get the people freed from exploitation by jagirdars and establish democracy.They fought against company rule in Bathot, Singrawat war, Aravalli hills, Agra fort, Nasirabad cantonment(Ajmer) etc.[124] In 1846, British declared them as dacoits and awards were also declared on arrest of them with assurance of job. Later Lothoo Jat became victim of Rajputs conspiracy and the Kachwaha Rajputs eliminated a brave, nationalist revolutionist in 1855.[125][126] On hearing the news of his friend Lothoo Jat’s death, Karna Mina also died in pain(1856).[126] In Rajputana gazetteer, Powlett describes the Minas as a former Ruling group who are the famous marauders and who plundered the British & their allies during revolts. In the 19th century the administrative concern with the Meenas had been a constant. They were outlawed in Rajputana and Captain Brooke led an expedition against them. Orders were issued to execute all the minas who ascended the Ghat of mewar without a pass. This very action was taken to support their alliance with Rajput kingdom then in Rajasthan. Even after such restrictions, decades following 1857 the concern with the Minas intensified. The Bharatpur police reports catalog their activities at length. Lawrence’s report which shows the British agitation over the Minas after 1857 as they are said to stop all traffic on highways and are active all over Rajputana.

Famines during British raj (Course, Epidemics, Usury and Mortalilty)

During the British Raj, famines in India, often attributed to failed government policies, were some of the worst ever recorded, including the frightful famine which desolated Rajputana in 1868, in which millions of people died and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1.25 to 10 million people died. During the years of invasion, several fresh groups of Meenas have been formed, under the stress of the frightful famine which desolated Rajputana in 1868. The monsoon of 1868 was late in coming and, moreover, when it came, was light and brief, lasting until only August 1868. There was shortage of fodder in most areas of Rajputana, and some areas had water shortage as well. Since the much needed grain could be brought in only on slow camel trains, the stricken areas were more or less inaccessible.[127] Many inhabitants of the famine-stricken regions of Rajputana, emigrated with their livestock or herds. Initially, however, they did not go to the British territory of Ajmer, where relief works had been arranged; many meenas wandered in search of food until they died from starvation. Late in 1868, epidemics of cholera broke out among the vulnerable population, and there was no harvest in the spring of 1869. In May 1869, many villagers, who had emigrated earlier, now returned to their villages believing that the rains that year would be early. However, the rains held off until mid-July, and, in the interim, many thousands more died of starvation. Even so, the autumn harvest promised to be abundant; however, swarms of locusts descended upon the fields and destroyed the young crops. In September and October 1869, there were heavy rains, which, although good for the spring harvest, caused an epidemic of malaria and killed many more.

Having been criticized for the badly bungled relief effort, British authorities began to discuss famine policy soon afterwards, Sir William Muir, issued a famous order stating that:
"every District officer would be held personally responsible that no deaths occurred from starvation which could have been avoided by any exertion or arrangement on his part or that of his subordinates."

The Government of British India organised famine relief works in the British territory of Ajmer Province of British India. The princely states of Rajputana, however, provided very little relief, only Udaipur State spent Rs. 5 lakhs.[128] Consequently, the immigration from the princely states into British India in the later stages of the famine began to overwhelm British efforts, and, in spite of Sir William Muir's newly defined responsibility for each district officer, the resulting mortality was great. It is thought that over 1.5 million people died all over Rajputana during the famine. The British had established control over North Western India in the early decades of the 19th century; this consisted of direct administration of the British outpost of Ajmer-Merwara farther north. The middle decades of the 19th century saw not only the implementation of a new system of land revenue and land rights in these areas, but also the establishment of new civil law. Under the new land rights system, peasants could be dispossessed of their land if they failed to pay the land-revenue (or land-tax) in a timely fashion. Manotidars were appointed to stand surety for the cultivators, many of whom were Bhils, Sondhia and Minas.[129] The British, however, continued to rely on local Baniya usurers, or Sahukars, to supply credit to the peasants. The imposition of the new system of civil law, however, meant that the peasants could be exploited by the sahukars, who were often able, through the new civil courts, to acquire title-deeds to a peasant's land for non-payment of debt. The mid-19th century was also a time of predominance of the economic theories of Adam Smith and David Ricardo, and the principle of laissez-faire was subscribed to by many colonial administrators; the British, consequently, declined to interfere in the markets. This meant that the Baniya sahukars could resort to hoarding during times of scarcity, driving up the price of food grain, and profiteering in the aftermath. All this occurred in Western India during the famine of 1899–1900. In Mina and Bhils dominated areas of western India, many zamindar peasants were forced to hand over their lands to the sahukars as security for meager loans that not only didn't granted them much relief, but that they later couldn't repay on account of exorbitant interest. The sahukars were to foreclose on these loans in the years after the famine; in the princely states of north western India, for example, the recorded land-transfers were to jump from an average of 13,000 per year during the decade of the 1890s, to over 65,000 during the year 1902–1903. The sahukars, in their effort to drive up prices, were even able to export grain out of areas of scarcity using the faster means of transport that came in with British raj. A British deputy district collector recorded in his report, "The merchants first cleared large profits by exporting their surplus stocks of grain at the commencement of the famine, and, later on by importing maize from Cawnpore and Bombay and rice from Calcutta and Rangoon." He went on to record that the sahukars were building new houses for themselves from these windfall profits. The blatant profiteering, however, led to grain riots in Princly states by Mina and Bhils, and grain riots became a feature of other British-ruled areas during times of famine.

As described by Woolbert, The Minas are generally industrious and sensible, but in years of famine, occasionally return to their former predatory and marauding style. They were somewhat demoralised after the natural calamities that occurred between 1868 and 1905. In general, they are of fine physical characteristics, and possess good powers of endurance. Vivian (1912) suggested that at the turn of the century there were around one million Minas and related clans, though only a small number of these had ever been involved in criminal activity. Nevertheless, those who were so engaged, most famously the Minas living in the village of Shajehanpur in the district of Gurgaon, south of Delhi, came to be represented as a hereditary band of bandits.

Under the influence of their ally Rajput kingdoms, British were biased towards Minas, Jats and Bheels. Hence they do not wrote much about the legacy of their ancient empires. Mina Revolts (1851–1860): In 1851 the Minas of Jahajpur Pargana in the Rajasthan revolted against the British. The British were biased with the tribal people. Therefore, the British were very harsh in dealing with these people. Thus Russell and Hiralal 'views' regarding Minas being 'bandits' is biased and baseless.

Recent history

Despite invasions of their lands throughout history, they were never assimilated, thereby retaining much of their culture and individuality. A culture known for being very strong, resilient and hardworking.[130] Their ethos includes an intense pride in ancestry and a mettlesome regard for personal honour. In terms of marriages the Meenas form a strong endogamous society, marriage outside the community is strictly prohibited.[7] Honour killings is maximum in Meenas of Rajasthan particularly.

They possess qualities like courage, loyalty, leadership, physical strength, resilience, fighting tenacity and military strategy. Though many of their strongholds lay in ruin, the Meenas bravely hold what remains theirs, while looking to reclaim their lost empires. Meenas are stubborn and sturdy people, but also brave and very hardworking, they remain true to the traditions and values of their heritage.[131][132]

The Meenas have played an important part in the history of Rajasthan(earlier known as Rajputana, Gurjaratra,[133] Matsya kingdom..the land of the Meenas[8]). In former times, Rajput and Meena chiefs, in subordination to the Taur kings of Delhi, ruled over a considerable tract of the country.

During the war with Rajputs and Mughals, the Meena community has been divided in basic four sects (1.) The Zamindar Meena (2.) The Chaukidar Meenas (3) Parihar Meenas and (4.) The Bhil Meena (Tribal).

The Zamindar Meena are traditionally connected with farming profession. They claim a Kshatriya status equivalent to that of the Rajputs. In the local socio-ritual hierarchy they enjoy a clean cast status.

The Chaukidar Minas are a branch of those Zamindar Meenas, who during the later middle age adopted fighting in the armies and later on Britishers enforced them to report on Chaukis(thana) regularly to ensure that they do not indulge in any criminal activities against British were known as Chowkidar Meena. Like Zamindar Meenas, Chowkidar Meenas call themselves Meena Thakur and claim Kshatriya status.

The Bhil Meena are said to be descended from those Meenas and Rajputs who, in the wars between their own tribes or with Muslims, were compelled to quit their native home and seek refuge in the vastness of Rajasthan, where they formed alliances with the aboriginal families and established tribe.

The Meenas of the Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Gangapur area are the most important cultivators for the last four hundred years. They expelled the Dhangars and Lodhis from a number of villages they occupied 500 years ago, and have retained their possession until now. In Karauli(Rajasthan), the Meenas, Gurjars, Yadavs and Jats smoke together. They live in complete harmony.[7]

Meo and Meenas

Majority of Meo population come from Meenas and till date they share same gotras and follow very similar Ethics and Culture. According to Britannica Meo, or Mewati tribe and caste inhabiting Rājasthān and Punjab states in northern India, and Punjab province, Pakistan, who speak Hindi. They claim descent from Rajputs of mainly the patrilineal clans of Minas.[134] In the 11th century, the Meo branch of the Mina tribe converted from Hinduism to Islām, but they retained Hindu dress. Although the Mina and Meo are regarded as variants, some Meo claim that their ancestral home is Jaipur. Originally a nomadic, warlike people practicing animal breeding and known for lawlessness,today most Mina and Meo are farmers with respected social positions. The Meos are known for its admixture of Hindu and Islamic customs, practices and beliefs. In 16th century Mughal kings faced perennial defeats by the Meo warrior tribe around Delhi and in the interiors of Rajasthan. Hasan Khan Mewati represented Meos in the battle of Kanwah along with Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sangha)in 1526 against the Mughal Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur. Hasan Khan was killed in the battle of Kanwah while his son Tahir Khan was captured by the Mughals. To the Mughals, the Mewatis were "rebels". In the late 20th century the Mina in India numbered more than 1,100,000, and the Meo, concentrated in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan, numbered more than 300,000. Both are divided into 12 exogamous clans, led by a headman (muqaddam) and a council (panch) of tribe members. They trace descent patrilineally and divide themselves into three classes: landlords, farmers, and watchmen. Both the Mina and Meo permit widow divorce and remarriage, and the Meo allow a man to exchange a sister or close female relative for his bride. Following Hindu tradition, the Mina cremate their dead while the Meo observe burial rites.

Meo of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Gangapur districts of Rajasthan made efforts to come back in Meena community, but the intermarriage concept (i.e., roti and bati) has put down their offer by Meena leaders. As Meo are followers of Islam.


According to DNA studies conducted by the American Institute of Genealogy Washington,Meo and Meenas are pure Proto Dravidians. This group is responsible for the creation of many indian languages.

Meena of Haryana, UP

In Haryana, the Meena are found mainly in the districts of Gurgaon, Mahenderagarh and Hissar. Unlike the Rajasthan Meena, the Haryana Meena have not been granted Scheduled Tribe status. They are divided into a number of gotras, the main ones being the Boya, Sihra, Jarwaal, Jepha, Papati, Morjal, Kawat, Gomalhada, Khangash, Jakhiwal, Nagori and Tajee. Each of these clans are of equal status, and intermarry. The Haryana Meena are largely a community of peasant farmers. A small number, particular in villages bordering Rajasthan are employed as village watchmen. They now speak Haryanvi, but most also understand Hindi.[135] Strong efforts are going-on to include all meenas of Haryana,UP to get included in ST, as being tribals their constitutional rights in other states are seriously violating. Only 2%of the mina tribe are graduate so far. According to news published in THE TIMES OF INDIA news paper dated 31august2010 even after 17years only 7%seats are filled of OBC(other backward classes of India) out of 27%seats reservation;Moreover only 2% of ST/SC are in class 1 jobs. In India for Equality there is a strong need of OBC/SC/ST reservation in billion dollor Corporate world, Private Sector and media.

b. Land rights The state government failed to address the problem of alienation of tribal lands. According to the 2007-08 Annual Report of the Ministry of Rural Development, a total of 2,084 cases of land alienation were filed in the Courts involving an area of 6,615 acres by 2007. 1,257 cases were disposed of by the Courts of which 187 cases involving 587 acres were decided in favour of the tribals, while 53 cases were rejected. Another 1,067 cases were pending in courts by the end of 2007.11 The state government failed to properly implement the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. In tribal-dominated Udaipur district, the district administration allegedly issued a misleading circular which stated that the cut-off year for eligibility given in the Act was 1980 instead of 2005. This was allegedly intentionally done to deprive the tribals from their rights under the Forest Rights Act. On 21 September 2008, several tribals were injured and hospitalized after they were attacked by non-tribals at a village under Jhadol tehsil in Udaipur district. The tribals were targeted after they filed their claims for land rights under the Forest Rights Act. Two of the tribals identified as Vera and Naro, sustained injuries in the attack.

The invasion of Hindu Adivasi territories, which for the most part commenced during the colonial period, intensified in the post-colonial period. Most of the Adivasi territories were claimed by the state. Over 10 million Adivasis have been displaced to make way for development projects such as dams, mining, industries, roads, protected areas etc. Though most of the dams (over 3000) are located in Adivasi areas, only 19.9% (1980-81) of Adivasi land holdings are irrigated as compared to 45.9% of all holdings of the general population. India produces as many as 52 principal, 3 fuel, 11 metallic, 38 non-metallic and a number of minor minerals.

Of these 45 major minerals (coal, iron ore, magnetite, manganese, bauxite, graphite, limestone, dolomite, uranium etc) are found in Adivasi areas contributing some 56% of the national total mineral earnings in terms of value. Of the 4,175 working mines reported by the Indian Bureau of Mines in 1991-92, approximately 3500 could be assumed to be in Adivasi areas. Income to the government from forests rose from Rs.5.6 million in 1869-70 to more than Rs.13 billions in the 1970s. The bulk of the nation's productive wealth lay in the Adivasi territories. Yet the Adivasi has been driven out, marginalised and robbed of dignity by the very process of 'national development'.

The systematic opening up of tribal territories, the development projects and the 'tribal development projects' make them conducive for waves of immigrants. In the rich mineral belt of Jharkhand, the Adivasi population has dropped from around 60% in 1911 to 27.67% in 1991. These developments have in turn driven out vast numbers of Adivasis to eke out a living in the urban areas and in far-flung places in slums. According to a rough estimate, there are more than 40,000 tribal domestic working women in Delhi alone!

With the onset of the policies of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation by our country during the last decade and a half, the problems of dalits, adivasis, other backward castes and the working people as a whole have greatly aggravated. The drive to privatise the public sector has directly hit reservations for the OBC/SC/STs. The ban on recruitment to government and semi-government jobs that has been imposed in several states has also had an adverse effect. The growing commercialisation of education and health has kept innumerable people from both socially and economically backward sections out of these vital sectors.

Origin of the Rajputs in Rajasthan and the Meenas

There is no link between Vedic Kshatriyas(old Rajas) and medival Rajputs in many cases.[136] The theory of Agnikula origin is given in the later manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso of Chand Bardai. According to Edwards, the Agnikul myth represents a rite of purgation by fire, the scene of which was in Southern Rajputana whereby the impurity of foreigners was removed and they became fit to enter caste system. The fictitious character of the story is obvious. It represents a Brahamanical effort to find a lofty origin for the Rajputs who gave them a lot of money and land in charity.[78] The story of agnikula is not mentioned at all in the original version of the Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner.[137] According to the book,a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan by Naravane & Malik the Agnikula theory for Rajputs was invented in 16th century to legitimise the “conversion” of foreign people as pure Kshatriyas.[136]

In the book by Satish Chandra,[138] there appears to be a fair consensus that Rajputs were drawn from miscellaneous castes including Brahmans, aboriginal tribesmen and foreigners who had settled in the country. The manner in which they become "Hinduized" or were assigned Rajputs is still not clear in detail, but can be summarised from analogous developments during the later medieval period. Thus, those sections which have control over land or gained political authority at the local and regional levels were often successful in gradually rising in the Varna scale. Conversely, those who lost control over land or local authority often sank in the Varna scale. Rajput was not a caste when it was formed; it was an association or ‘Sangh’ of various kings ‘Raja-Putra’ against the Mughal invaders.

However, apart from the control over the land and politics authority, a higher Varna status could not be acquired without the support and backing of the Brahmans. The emergence of the Rajputs in north India represented a tacit alliance between those who controlled land and possessed political authority, and the Brahmans who were the legitimisers, so to speak. In return from granting recognition to the various ruling element as Rajputs and Kshatriyas, the Brahmans received generous grants of land and money for their sustenance, and for building and maintaining temples. In general Rajputs of Rajasthan are mixed-breed of Meenas, Gujjars, Jats and other warrior tribes. In fact, according to a number of scholars, the agnikula clans were originally Gurjaras (or Gurjars)[139] and Chauhan was prominent clan of the Gurjars (or Gujjars).[140] Several scholars including D. B. Bhandarkar, Baij Nath Puri and A. F. Rudolf Hoernle believe that the Pratihara were a branch of Gurjars.[78][141][142][143][144][145] Prithviraj Chauhan, according to several scholars, was a Gurjar.[146][147] Historian Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines states that the Gurjars were forefathers of the Sisodiyas.[79] In fact, Rajputana was essentially the country of the Gurjars.[148][149] Historian R. C. Majumdar explained that the region was long known as Gurjaratra (Gurjar nation), early form of Gujarat, before it came to be called Rajputana,later in the Mughal period.[133]

See also


  1. Meenas are the largest community group of north India after Jats and it is the largest tribe in Rajasthan.


  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kapur_May_2008
  4. Template:Cite book
  5. Matsya Purana (Vangavasi). 13-SL.35.
  6. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Correspondence and Select Documents By Rajendra Prasad, Valmiki Choudhary Published by Allied Publishers, 1984 ISBN 81-7023-002-0, 9788170230021
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Rizvi_1987
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Template:Cite book
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mann_1993
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Singh_1998
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kanakasabhai_1989
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mukerji_1982
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ReferenceA
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sharma_1971_191
  16. Matsya
  17. Template:Cite book
  18. Srimad Bhagavatam: Glossary of Sanskrit Terms
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Rajasthan_aajtak_ISBN81-903622-6-7
  22. Sukh Sampati Raj Bhandari: Bharat ke deshi rajya, Jaypur rajya ka Itihas
  23. 23.0 23.1 Sahiram: Ek adhūrī krānti, Shekhawati kā kisān āndolan (1922-1952), page-3
  24. 24.0 24.1 Satapatha Brahman 13/5/9
  25. Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100
  26. Philological estimates tend to date the bulk of the text to the second half of the second millennium. Compare Max Müller's statement "the hymns of the Rig-Veda are said to date from 1500 BC" ('Veda and Vedanta', 7th lecture in India: What Can It Teach Us: A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge, World Treasures of the Library of Congress Beginnings by Irene U. Chambers, Michael S. Roth.
  27. "As a possible date ad quem for the RV one usually adduces the Hittite-Mitanni agreement of the middle of the 14th cent. B.C. which mentions four of the major Rgvedic gods: mitra, varuNa, indra and the nAsatya azvin)" M. Witzel, Early Sanskritization – Origin and development of the Kuru state.
  28. The Vedic People: Their History and Geography, Rajesh Kochar, 2000, Orient Longman, ISBN 8125013849
  29. Rigveda and River Saraswati:
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ReferenceB
  31. Sukh Sampati Raj Bhandari: Bharat ke deshi rajya, Jaypur rajya ka Itihas, page 3
  32. Template:Cite book
  33. Template:Cite book
  34. Template:Cite book
  35. For the inexact nature of the traditional group of six, see: Flood (1996), p. 110.
  36. Template:Cite book
  37. The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi 2000
  38. Template:Cite book
  39. Template:Cite book
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Template:Cite book
  41. Template:Cite book
  42. C. Rajagopalachari, Mahābhārata, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1994
  43. Template:Cite book
  44. Template:Cite book
  45. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Related Articles arsenical bronze writing, literatur
  46. Nupam Mahajan and R. Balasubramaniam, "Scanning electron microscopy study of an ancient silver punch-marked coin with central pentagonal mark", Numismatic Digest v. 22.
  47. "Ancient Indian Coinage", RBI Monetary Museum,
  48. The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Angus Maddison
  49. Smith, John. "The Mahābhārata : an abridged translation". Penguin Books, 2009, p.18
  50. India as Known to Panini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1963, p 427, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; India in the Time of Patañjali, 1968, p 68, Dr B. N. Puri - India; Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India, 1977, p 9, Y. K Mishra - Bihar (India); Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 18, Mamata Choudhury - Ethnology; Tribal Coins of Ancient India, 2007, p xxiv, Devendra Handa - Coins, Indic - 2007; The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 1972, p 221, Numismatic Society of India - Numismatics .
  51. Template:Citation.
  52. Template:Citation.
  53. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  54. Template:Cite web
  55. Template:Cite web
  56. Template:Cite web
  57. Template:Cite web
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 Template:Cite book
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Template:Cite book
  60. Template:Cite book
  61. Mahabharata 5.19.21-23.
  62. Brihat-Katha-Manjari 10.1.285-86.
  63. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  64. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
  65. Ramayana 55.2-3.
  66. Template:Cite book
  67. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland-page-323
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race
  70. Template:Cite book
  71. Template:Cite book
  72. H. S. Williams, The Historians' History of the World, 21 Vols., The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, Vol. 2, pp 481.
  73. Sir H.M. Elliot, Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp 133–134.
  74. Scythian Origins
  75. Template:Cite book
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. Template:Cite book
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 78.4 Template:Cite book
  79. 79.0 79.1 Template:Cite book
  80. Template:Cite book
  81. Template:Cite book
  83. such as the Meena kings of Rajasthan before its defeat at the hands of the Mughals..
  84. Template:Cite book
  85. Template:Cite book
  86. Template:Cite book
  87. Indian Economic and Social History Review 1987, Himanshu P Ray, 24: 443
  88. Ancient India: a history of its culture and civilization, Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, p.166-170
  89. Dr Natthan Singh, Jat-Itihas, (Jat History), Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, F-13, Dr Rajendra Prasad Colony, Tansen marg, Gwalior, M.P, India 474 002 2004, page-91
  90. 90.0 90.1 Template:Cite book
  91. Template:Cite book
  93. Template:Cite book
  94. Template:Cite book
  95. Template:Cite book
  96. Template:Cite book
  97. Template:Cite book
  98. Template:Cite journalTemplate:Subscription required
  99. Template:Cite book
  100. Template:Cite book
  101. Template:Cite book
  102. Template:Harvnb
  103. such as the Meena kings of Rajasthan before its defeat at the hands of the Mughals.
  104. Template:Cite book
  105. Template:Cite web
  106. Template:Cite book
  107. Beveridge H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000) The Akbarnama of Abu´l Fazl, Vol. III, Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-094-0, p.687
  108. Mahajan V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.116
  109. Template:Harvnb
  110. [1]
  111. [2]
  112. Template:Cite book
  113. Template:Cite web
  114. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, 2 vols. London, Smith, Elder (1829, 1832); New Delhi, Munshiram Publishers, (2001), pp. 83-4. ISBN 8170691281
  115. Template:Cite book
  116. Template:Cite book
  117. Template:Cite book
  118. History of ancient Meena states and their struggle with Kacchhawa rulers,pdf format p5-7
  119. Template:Cite book
  120. [Letters in a Mahratta Camp During the Year, 1809, By Thomas Duer Broughton, ISBN 81-206-1008-3]
  121. Jaipur - Administration The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908, v. 13, p. 397.
  122. Template:Cite book
  123. Template:Cite book
  124. Template:Cite book
  125. Template:Cite book
  126. 126.0 126.1 Mansukh Ranwa (2001): Amar Shaheed Lothoo Jat, J C Ranwa Prakashan, Sikar, Rajasthan, p.18
  127. Template:Harvnb
  128. Template:Harvnb
  129. Template:Cite book
  130. Template:Cite book
  131. Template:Cite book
  132. Template:Cite book
  133. 133.0 133.1 Template:Cite book
  134. Cultural geography of folk houses, R. S. Pawar, Pointer Publishers, 01-Jan-1992 - Architecture - 212 pages.
  135. People of India Hayana Volume XXIII edited by M.L Sharma and A.K Bhatia pages 342 to 354 Manohar
  136. 136.0 136.1 M. S. Naravane, V. P. Malik. The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan. APH Publishing, 1999. ISBN 8176481181, 9788176481182. Pg 20
  137. Template:Cite book
  138. Template:Cite book
  139. Template:Cite book
  140. Template:Cite book
  141. Template:Cite book
  142. Template:Cite book
  143. Template:Cite book
  144. Template:Cite book
  145. Baij Nath Puri, The history of the Gurjara-Pratihāras,Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1986, pp.1–3
  146. Template:Cite book
  147. Template:Cite book
  148. Template:Cite book
  149. Template:Cite book


Extra References

  1. Brown, Mark. 'Crime, Liberalism and Empire : Governing the Mina Tribe of Northern India'. Social & Legal Studies, 13:2 (2004), 191-218. Publisher: Sage Publications. ISSN 09646639.
  2. Demography and health profile of the tribals: a study of M.P.|author=Dipak Kumar Adak|publisher=Anmol Publications PVT.

External links